The Contemporary Globalization of Political Antisemitism: Three Political Spaces and the Global Mainstreaming of the “Jewish Question” in the Twenty-First Century
This article examines the current globalization of political antisemitism and its effects on the resurgent normalization of anti-Jewish discourse and politics in a global context. The focus is on three political spaces in which the “Jewish question” has been repoliticized and become a salient feature of political ideology, communication, and mobilization: the global radical right, global Islamism, and the global radical left. Different contexts and justificatory discourses notwithstanding, the comparative empirical analysis shows that three interrelated elements of globalized antisemitism feature most prominently across these different political spaces: anti-Jewish conspiracy myths; Holocaust denial or relativization; and hatred of Israel. It is argued that the current process of the globalization of political antisemitism has significantly contributed to antisemitism’s presence in all kinds of public spaces as well as the convergence of antisemitic ideology among a variety of different actors. Moreover, the globalization of political antisemitism has helped accelerate the dissemination and social acceptance of anti-Jewish tropes that currently take shape in broader publics, that is: the globalized mainstreaming of antisemitism. The article concludes by discussing some factors favorable to the globalization and normalization of antisemitism, and the resurgence of antisemitic politics in the current age.
Keywords: conspiracy myths, globalization, Holocaust denial, Israel hatred, political antisemitism
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Antisemitism, Matti Bunzl first suggested in 2005, “has run its course with the supersession of the nation-state.” It has allegedly been replaced by the “new” phenomenon of “Islamophobia . . . a formation of the present [which] threatens to become the defining condition of the new Europe.” Matti Bunzl, “Between anti-Semitism and Islamophobia: Some Thoughts on the New Europe,” American Ethnologist 32, no. 4 (2005): 499–509. John Esposito claims that islamophobia is “the new anti-Semitism.” See John Esposito, “The new anti-Semitism,” The Observer, June 22, 2003. Without referring to any empirical evidence, Farid Hafez similarly suggests “the epistemic essence of racialization moves from the Jewish to the Muslim subject . . . anti-Semitic prejudices no more represent a pillar of the far right.” See Farid Hafez, “From Anti-Semitism to Islamophobia: The European Far Right’s Strategic Shift,” Discover Society, July 1, 2015, https://discoversociety.org/2015/07/01/from-anti-semitism-to-islamophobia-the-european-far-rights-strategic-shift/. In turn, Hafez laments an allegedly hegemonic “redemptive use of the Holocaust and the Shoah as lessons for a post-racial Europe [which] serves a nationalist and racist conceit that constructs European identity against disenfranchised Muslim populations.” See idem, “Comparing Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia: The State of the Field,” Islamophobia Studies Journal 3, no. 2 (2016): 16–34, 19.
International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance Working Definition of Antisemitism, 2016, https://www.holocaustremembrance.com/working-definition-antisemitism; see also Dina Porat, “The Struggle over the International Working Definition of Antisemitism,” in Antisemitism Today and Tomorrow: Global Perspectives on the Many Faces of Contemporary Antisemitism, ed. Mikael Shainkman (Brookline, MA: Academic Studies Press, 2018).
See Lars Rensmann, The Politics of Unreason: The Frankfurt School and the Origins of Modern Antisemitism (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press), 161.
Kenneth L. Marcus, The Definition of Anti-Semitism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015), 44.
David Seymour, “Adorno and Horkheimer: Enlightenment and Antisemitism,” Journal of Jewish Studies 51, no. 2 (2000): 297–312, 312. Finding expressions in private interactions as well as popular culture, societal institutions, media and politics, the scope and intensity of contemporary antisemitism can vary—ranging from clichés about Jewish intellect to a fully blown antisemitic “world explanation.” And so do, as in previous periods, the socio-psychological motivations or causes involved: in some post-Holocaust contexts, “secondary” motives can play a role, that is, the urge to denigrate “the Jews” because they become identified with the troubling memory of national guilt and are blamed for remembering, by their very existence, the culpability and failures of one’s family or nation during the Shoah (see Rensmann, The Politics of Unreason, 360). A similar mechanism can be identified in post-colonial antisemitism—prominently featuring also among citizens from former colonizing or imperial powers, who may delegate historical national guilt onto Israel and the Jews, demonized as especially evil.
Just as the Nazis had global ambitions and wanted to rule the world, they viewed, like many of their antisemitic successors, Jews behind a global conspiracy—and it was no coincidence that they aimed at murdering all Jews around the globe.
See for definitions and original ground-breaking studies of “political antisemitism”, that is, antisemitism as a political movement: Paul W. Massing, Rehearsal for Destruction. A Study of Political Anti-Semitism in Imperial Germany (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1949); Eva Reichmann, Hostages of Civilisation. A Study of the Social Causes of Antisemitism (Boston: Beacon Press, 1951), Peter Pulzer, The Rise of Political Antisemitism in Germany and Austria (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988 ); Shulamit Volkov, Germans, Jews, and Antisemites. Trials in Emancipation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2006).
Lucy Williamson, “Gilets Jaunes: How Much Anti-Semitism Is beneath the Yellow Vests?,” BBC News, February 19, 2019, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-47286576.
David Hirsh, Contemporary Left Antisemitism (New York: Routledge, 2018), 113.
See Gideon Botsch, “Rechtsextremismus und ‘neuer Antisemitismus’,” in Das neue Unbehagen: Antisemitismus in Deutschland heute, ed. Olaf Glöckner & Günther Jikeli, (Hildesheim: Olms Verlag, 2019), 21–38.
See Tamir Bar-On, “The Radical Right and Nationalism,” in The Oxford Handbook of the Radical Right, ed. Jens Rydgren (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018), 17–41; Pippa Norris, Radical Right: Voters and Parties in the Electoral Market (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009); Lars Rensmann, “Against ‘Globalism’: Antisemitism and Counter-Cosmopolitanism in the Party Ideology of the Extreme Right in Europe,” in Politics and Resentment: Counter-Cosmopolitanism and Antisemitism in the European Union, ed. Lars Rensmann & Julius H. Schoeps (Boston: Brill, 2011), 117–146.
See Cas Mudde, “Three Decades of Populist Radical Right Parties in Western Europe: So What?,” European Journal of Political Research 52, no. 1 (2013): 1–19; Hans-Georg Betz, “The Radical Right and Populism,” in The Oxford Handbook of the Radical Right, ed. Jens Rydgren (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018), 86–104; Piero Ignazi, Extreme Right Parties in Western Europe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).
See Duncan McDonnell and Annika Werner, International Populism: The Radical Right in the European Parliament (Hurst: Oxford University Press, 2019); Daniele Albertazzi & Duncan McDonnell, Populists in Power (New York: Routledge, 2015).
See Ignazi, Extreme Right Parties.
See Bar-On, “The Radical Right and Nationalism.”
See Cas Mudde, The Ideology of the Extreme Right (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003), 169–175.
See Ruth Wodak, “The Radical Right and Antisemitism,” in The Oxford Handbook of the Radical Right, ed Jens Rydgren (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018).
See Rensmann, “Against ‘Globalism’”; Samuel Salzborn, Globaler Antisemitismus (Weinheim: Beltz Juventa, 2018).
It is important to note that the role of antisemitism in ethno-nationalist and white supremacist ideology has varied across time and space. There are few examples where white ethnic nationalism/racism is not also attached to antisemitism and racialized views of Jews as “enemies of the people.” However, in several historical periods and cases of US history antisemitism was not the primary focal point rallying of ethnic nationalists, white supremacists, and the radical right—notwithstanding the virulent antisemitism enabling the lynching of Leo Frank in 1915; the temporary successes of Henry Ford’s propaganda in the 1920s; the temporary successes of the decidedly anti-Jewish American Nazis of the German American Bund in the 1930s; and other antisemitic agitators attacking Jewish refugees in the 1940s, and since then. See Steve Oney, And the Dead Shall Rise: The Murder of Mary Phegan and the Lynching of Leo Frank (New York: Random House, 2003); Neil Baldwin, Henry Ford and the Jews: The Mass Production of Hate (New York: Public Affairs, 2001); Diamond Sander, The Nazi Movement in the United States: 1924–1941 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1974).
See Salzborn, Globaler Antisemitismus; Wodak, “The Radical Right and Antisemitism.”
Quoted in Shlomo Ben-Ami, “Antisemitism Has a New Name,” Project Syndicate, December 18, 2018, https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/israel-hungary-soros-law-anti-semitism-by-shlomo-ben-ami-2018-12?barrier=accesspaylog.
For the dissemination of the idea of “the great replacement” the French writer Renaud Camus takes responsibility. His attacks on international policies advanced by “replacist” liberal and global elites—void of attacks against Jews, though the fear of ‘materialistic globalism’ and conspiring global elites aligns with anti-Jewish codes—have widely resonated. The “great replacement” narrative has been absorbed by both the populist and the extremist and terrorists wings of the radical right, and, alongside the idea of a “white genocide by substitution,” popularized by think tanks, radio and TV hosts around the world—is often construed as a ‘global Jewish plot.’
Quoted in Deutsche Welle, “AfD, on course for parliament, says Germany done with Nazi past,” Deutsche Welle, September 15, 2019, https://www.dw.com/en/afd-on-course-for-parliament-says-germany-done-with-nazipast/a-40519573.
See Federico Finchelstein, “Jair Bolsonaro’s Model Isn’t Berlusconi. It’s Goebbels,” Foreign Policy 5 (October 2018).
Jeffrey Herf argues that “in the context of contemporary history, it is apparent that ‘anti-Zionism’ as a cultural code is inseparable from anti-Semitic views which could not be so easily expressed as such after the Holocaust” and that today “there is no politically and historically significant divergence between what anti-Semitism and anti-Zionism have come to mean in world politics. One has become the handmaiden of the other.” See Jeffrey Herf, “Introduction,” in Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism in Historical Perspective: Convergence and Divergence, ed. Jeffrey Herf (New York: Routledge, 2007), x–ix, xviii. The radical right is a case in point.
Quoted in Reginald Phelps, “Hitlers ‘grundlegende’ Rede über den Antisemitismus,” Vierteljahreshefte für Zeitgeschichte 16, no. 4 (1968): 390–420, 406.
Quoted in “Iranian leader says Israel will be ‘wiped out’,” AP, December 12, 2006, https://web.archive.org/web/20111215020246/http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16149717/.
Quoted in Jannis Hutt, “‘Israel ist unser Unglück’: Neonazis, Islamisten und linke Antiimperialisten haben eines gemein: ihren glühendenden Hass auf Israel,” Jungle World, June 6, 2019, https://jungle.world/artikel/2019/23/ israel-ist-unser-unglueck. This is an allusion to the German antisemitic trope that “Jews are our misfortune.”
See Stefan Laurin, “Die Rechte: Nazis wollen BDS-Kamapgne unterstützen,” Ruhrbarone, March 16, 2019, https://www.ruhrbarone.de/die-rechte-nazis-wollen-bds-kampagne-unterstuetzen/167256.
See Amanda Taub, “France’s Far Right Courts Jewish Voters,” The New York Times, April 7, 2017.
Quoted in Ingrid de Groot, “Woede over protestactie neonazi’s,” Algemeen Dagblad, September 5, 2019, https://www.ad.nl/den-haag/woede-over-protestactie-neonazi-s-pijnlijk-dat-demonstratie-niet-verboden-wordt~af947a00/.
See Marc Weitzmann, Hate: The Rising Tide of Antisemitism in France (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2019); Samuel Salzborn, “Antisemitism in the ‘Alternative for Germany’ Party,” German Politics & Society 36, no. 3 (2018): 74–93.
See Melissa Fay Greene, The Temple Bombing (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2003).
Quoted in Nicole Chavez, Emanuella Grinberg, and Eliot C. McLaughlin, “Pittsburgh Synagogue Gunman Said He Wanted All Jews to Die, Criminal Complaint Says,” CNN, October 31, 2018, https://edition.cnn.com/2018/10/28/us/pittsburgh-synagogue-shooting/index.html.
Quoted in Pauline Repard, “‘There Was Chaos’: Witnessess in Court Hearing Recall Poway Synagogue Shooting,” The San Diego Union-Tribune, September 19, 2019, https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/courts/story/2019-09-19/hearing-opens-for-suspect-in-poway-synagogue-shooting.
Quoted in “Greg Johnson,” Southern Poverty Law Center, 2019, https://www.splcenter.org/fighting-hate/extremist-files/individual/greg-johnson.
Lars Rensmann, “The Noisy Counter-Revolution: Understanding the Cultural Conditions and Dynamics of Populist Politics in Europe in the Digital Age,” Politics and Governance 5, no. 4 (2017): 123–135.
Quoted in David C. Atkinson, “Charlottesville and the Alt-Right: A Turning Point?” Politics, Groups, and Identities 6, no. 2 (2018): 309–315.
See Taub, “France’s Far Right Courts Jewish Voters.”
See Matthias Küntzel, “Islamic Antisemitism: Its Genesis, Meaning, and Effects,” Antisemitism Studies 2, no. 2 (2018): 235–253.
See Jeffrey Herf, Nazi Propaganda for the Arab World (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009); also Esther Webman, “The ‘Jew’ as a Metaphor for Evil in Arab Public Discourse,” The Journal of the Middle East and Africa 6, nos. 3–4 (2015): 275–292.
Jeffrey Herf, “Convergence: The Classic Case Nazi Germany, Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism during World War II,” in Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism in Historical Perspective, ed. Jeffrey Herf (New York: Routledge, 2007), 50–70, 65.
See Kwame Anthony Appiah, Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006); see also Lars Rensmann, “A Crisis of Postmodernity? Rethinking Antisemitism, Counter-Cosmopolitanism, and Human Rights in the Global Age,” in Politics and Resentment: Counter-Cosmopolitanism and Antisemitism in the European Union, ed. Lars Rensmann and Julius H. Schoeps (Boston: Brill, 2011), 457–490.
Quoted in Jonathan D. Halevi, “Canadian Islamic Sermons, Literature on Killing Jews and Enemies of Islam,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, December 18, 2018, http://jcpa.org/canadian-islamic-sermons-literature-on-killing-jews-and-enemies-of-islam/; “Chechen leader: Jews Are the Enemy,” Israel National News, August 20, 2019, http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/267667.
See Günter Jikeli, European Muslim Antisemitism: Why Young Urban Males Say They Don’t Like Jews (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2014).
See Herf, “Convergence,” 65.
Quoted in Salzborn, Globaler Antisemitismus, 117.
Herf, “Convergence,” 65.
See Webman, “The ‘Jew’ as a Metaphor for Evil.”
ISIS presents a vision of a “demented utopia”, “in which children played with severed heads and ran laughing down streets lined with mangled bodies. . . . A seemingly endless procession of atrocities was captured in photographs and videos, and distributed through both official and unofficial channels on social media.” Jessica Stern and J. M. Berger, ISIS: The State of Terror (London: William Collins, 2015), 115. However, it is astonishing how an in-depth account and scholarship dealing with ISIS often treats antisemitism as a marginal aspect of ISIS’s and jihadism core ideology, if at all.
Stern and Berger, ISIS, 94.
See Deborah E. Lipstadt, “Why Jews are worried,” International New York Times, August 22, 2014; see also Matthias Küntzel, Jihad and Jew-Hatred: Islamism, Nazism, and the Roots of 9/11 (Candor, NY: Telos, 2009). In spite of the evidently delusionary and projective nature of such antisemitism, Derek J. Penslar claims that “Arab anti-Semitism’s fantasies are far more thoroughly grounded in reality than are those of their European predecessors” and suggests antisemitism “grows out of a political conflict in which Jews are empowered actors.” Derek J. Penslar, “Anti-Semites on Zionism: From Indifference to Obsession,” in Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism in Historical Perspective, ed. Jeffrey Herf (New York: Routledge, 2007), 1–19, 17.
Meir Litvak, “The Islamic Republic of Iran and the Holocaust: Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism,” in Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism in Historical Perspective: Convergence and Divergence, ed. Jeffrey Herf (New York: Routledge, 2007), 250–267, 150.
See Matthias Küntzel, “Iranian Antisemitism: Stepchild of National Socialism,” Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 4, no. 1 (2010): 43–51.
Litvak, “The Islamic Republic of Iran,” 251.
Matthias Küntzel, Unholy Hatreds: Holocaust Denial and Antisemitism in Iran (Jersualem: Vidal Sassoon Center for the Study of Antisemitism at the Hebrew University, 2007), 15.
Litvak, “The Islamic Republic of Iran,” 261–2; Küntzel, Unholy Hatreds, 14.
Küntzel, Unholy Hatreds, 17.
Quoted in Litvak, “The Islamic Republic of Iran,” 260.
Küntzel, Unholy Hatreds, 14.
Katharina Schipkowski, “Antisemitismus jetzt doch doof: Grüne fordern die Überprüfung der Muslimstaatsverträge,” die tageszeitung, November 8, 2016, https://taz.de/Streit-um-die-Blaue-Moschee-in-Hamburg/!5351742/.
See Damien Sharkov, “Pro-ISIS Demonstrators Call for ‘Death to Jews’ in the Netherlands,” Newsweek, July 30, 2014, https://www.newsweek.com/pro-isis-demonstrators-call-death-jews-hague-262064.
Quoted in Sarah Wildman, “German Court Rules that Firebombing a Synagogue is not Anti-Semitic,” Vox.com, January 13, 2017, https://www.vox.com/world/2017/1/13/14268994/synagogue-wuppertal-anti-semitism-anti-zionism-anti-israel.
Quoted in Yitzchok Adlerstein, “Wie kann ein Anschlag auf eine Synagoge nicht judenfeindlich sein?,” Der Tagesspiegel, March 27, 2017 https://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/antisemitismus-in-deutschland-wie-kann-ein-anschlagauf-eine-synagoge-nicht-judenfeindlich-sein/19572812.html.
See Robert Fine and Philip Spencer, Antisemitism and the Left: On the Return of the Jewish Question (Manchester: Manchester University Press), 1–6.
See Moishe Postone, “Anti-Semitism and National Socialism,” in Germans and Jews Since the Holocaust, ed. Anson Rabinbach and Jack Zipes (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1986). The radical right, of course, has amplified the antisemitic topos that Jews epitomize both capitalism and communism.
See Hirsh, Contemporary Left Antisemitism, 3.
Andrei S. Markovits and Heiko Beyer, “Jews and Americans as Supbervillains,” Tablet, July 1, 2018, https://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/265365/anti-americanism-anti-semitism. See also Robert Wistrich, From Ambivalence to Betrayal: The Left, the Jews, and Israel (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2012).
The latter is a phrase used, among many others, by New York anthropologist Arjun Appadurai, who claims that Israel commits a “carceral genocide” against Palestinians, a “genocide by confinement, concentration and starvation. The historical prototype of this is to be found in the Nazi concentration camps.” Arjun Appadurai,“Across the World, Genocidal States Are Attacking Muslims: Is Islam Really Their Target?,” Scroll.In, May 22, 2018, https://scroll.in/article/879591/from-israel-to-myanmar-genocidal-projects-are-less-about-religion-and-more-about-predatory-states.
Rensmann, “A Crisis of Postmodernity?,” 459.
See Monika Schwarz-Friesel and Jehuda Reinharz, Inside the Antisemitic Mind: The Language of Jew-Hatred in Contemporary Germany (Lebanon, NH: Brandeis University Press, 2017).
See Jeffrey Herf, Undeclared Wars with Israel: East Germany and the West German Far Left, 1967-1989 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016).
For a critical analysis see Cary Nelson, Israel Denial: Anti-Zionism, Antisemitism, and the Faculty Campaign against the Jewish State (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2019).
Quoted in Haaretz, “After Banning Jewish Flags Last Year, Chicago Displays Palestinian Flags,” Haaretz, June 26, 2018, https://www.haaretz.com/us-news/chicago-dyke-march-flies-palestinian-flags-after-banning-jewish-ones-1.6216718.
See Hirsh, Contemporary Left Antisemitism, 3.
See ibid., 23.
As stated in a University and College Union [UCU] motion, quoted in Hirsh, Contemporary Left Antisemitism, 148.
Quoted in Hirsh, Contemporary Left Antisemitism, 148.
See Lesley Klaff, “Fraser v. University and College Union: Anti-Zionism, Antisemitism, and Racializing Discourse,” in Anti-Zionism and Antisemitism: The Dynamics of Delegitimization, ed. Alvin H. Rosenfeld (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2019).
Deborah E. Lipstadt, Antisemitism: Here and Now (New York: Schocken, 2019), 177–183.
See Nelson, Israel Denial.
BDS chapters have organized events celebrating and commemorating the day the antisemitic organization “Palestinian Front for the Liberation of Palestine” was founded; see, for instance, “BDS Berlin Rede zum Gründungstag der PFLP,“ BDS Berlin, December 16, 2014, http://bdsberlin.org/2014/12/16/bds-berlin-rede-zum-gruendungstag-der-pflp/. According to a recent report by Israel’s Strategic Affairs Ministry, several members of PFLP and Hamas hold senior positions in BDS NGOs; see Lahav Harkov, “Dozens of Hamas members hold senior positions in BDS NGOs,” The Jerusalem Post, February 3, 2019, https://www.jpost.com/BDS-THREAT/Over-30-Hamas-PFLP-terrorists-hold-posts-in-anti-Israel-BDS-groups-govt-579544.
Omar Barghouti, “Relative Humanity: The Fundamental Obstacle to a One-State Solution in Historic Palestine,” Electronic Intifada, January 6, 2004, https://electronicintifada.net/content/relative-humanity-fundamental-obstacle-one-state-solution-historic-palestine-12/4939.
See Elizabeth Tsurkov, “The Left Only Cares about Palestinians When It Can Blame Israel,” Forward, May 4, 2018, https://forward.com/opinion/400384/the-left-only-cares-about-palestinians-when-it-can-blame-israel/.
See Hirsh, Contemporary Left Antisemitism, 100–101.
Quoted in Vanessa Thorpe and Edward Helmore, “Former Pink Floyd Frontman Sparks Fury by Comparing Israelis to Nazis,” The Guardian, December 14, 2013, https://www.theguardian.com/music/2013/dec/14/pink-floyd-frontman-fury-israel-nazis.
Judith Butler, “As a Jew, I Was Taught It Was Ethically Imperative to Speak Up,” Haaretz, February 24, 2010, https://www.haaretz.com/1.5052023.
“Understanding Hamas/Hezbollah as social movements that are progressive, that are on the left, that are part of the global left, is extremely important. That does not stop us from being critical of certain dimensions of both movements. It doesn’t stop those of us who are interested in non-violent politics from raising the question of whether there are other options besides violence.” Judith Butler, quoted in Michael J. Totten, “The Anti-Imperialism of Fools,” World Affairs, August 28, 2011.
All quotes from “The Salaita Tweets,” Daily Kos, August 18, 2018, https://www.dailykos.com/stories/2015/8/18/1412900/-The-Salaita-Tweets-A-Twitter-Outrage-concordance.
Quoted in Robert Mackey, “Professor’s Angry Tweets on Gaza Cost Him a Job,” The New York Times, September 12, 2014, https://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/13/world/middleeast/professors-angry-tweets-on-gaza-cost-him-a-job.html.
Quoted in John Anderson, “Festival in Oslo rejects documentary by an Israeli,” International New York Times, August 21, 2015.
See Rensmann, “A Crisis of Postmodernity?,” 472.
See Jon Henley, “Antisemitism Rising Sharply across Europe, Latest Figures Show,” The Guardian, February 15, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/news/2019/feb/15/antisemitism-rising-sharply-across-europe-latest-figures-show. Figures are similar around the world. Australia, for instance, also saw a 60% rise of antisemitic incidents before the end of the same year; see Hagar Cohen and Jaqueline Bouf, “Antisemitism report shows marked increase in incidents and neo-Nazi activity,” ABC, November 26, 2018, https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-11-26/antisemitism-report-shows-marked-increase-in-incidents-australia/10555264.
See Richard Allen Greene, “A Shadow over Europe: CNN Poll Antisemitism in Europe,” CNN, November 2018, https://edition.cnn.com/interactive/2018/11/europe/antisemitism-poll-2018-intl/.
See Global 100, Anti-Defamation League, 2015, https://global100.adl.org.
See Monika Schwarz-Friesel, Judenhass im Internet (Leipzig: Hentrich & Hentrich), 16.
Defying all human rights rhetoric and conventions of the twentieth and the twenty-first centuries, these governments spread antisemitic conspiracy myths, like the century-old, still widely circulated anti-Jewish forgery of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.
See Daniel J. Goldhagen, The Devil that Never Dies: The Rise and Threat of Global Antisemitism (New York: Little, Brown and Co., 2013).
Heiko Beyer, “The Globalization of Resentment: Antisemitism in an Inter- and Transnational Context,” Social Science Quarterly 100, no. 5 (2019): 1503–1522.
See Stephen Eric Bronner, “Conspiracy Then and Now: History, Politics, and the Anti-Semitic Imagination,” in The Paranoid Apocalypse: A Hundred-Year Retrospective on The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, ed. Richard Landes & Steven T. Katz (New York: NYU Press), 219–228.
Salzborn, Globaler Antisemitismus, 25.
See Milton Shain, “Antisemitism and Anti-Zionism in the ‘New’ South Africa,” in Global Antisemitism: A Crisis of Modernity, vol. 3, ed. Charles Asher Small (New York: Institute for the Study of Global Antisemitism and Policy, 2013), 21–27.
See Anne Bayefsky, “Antisemitism, Brought to you by the United Nations,” National Review, September 7, 2016, https://www.nationalreview.com/2016/09/anti-semitism-united-nations-supports-hate-groups-calling-israels-destruction/.
See Jon Stratton, “Playing the Jew: Anti-Semitism and Football in the Twenty-First Century,” Jewish Culture and History 16, no. 3 (2015): 293–311.
Rensmann, The Politics of Unreason, 405.
Anna Lührmann and Staffan I. Lindberg, “A Third Wave of Autocratization is Here: What is New about It?,” Democratization 26, no. 7 (2019): 1095–1113.
Quoted in Michael M. Grynbaum and Eileen Sullivan, “Trump Attacks the Times, in a Week of Unease for the American Press,” The New York Times, February 20, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/20/us/politics/new-york-times-trump.html.
Quoted in “Trump’s Last Campaign Ad ‘Has Anti-Semitic Overtones’,” Haaretz, November 6, 2016, https://www.haaretz.com/world-news/trump-s-last-campaign-ad-has-anti-semitic-overtones-1.5457546.
In similar innuendos, Trump has semantically “de-naturalized” American Jews by speaking of Netanyahu as “your prime minister” in front of American Jews, and he linked classic antisemitic “disloyalty” charges with American Jews—replicating the antisemitic “disloyalty” charges against American Jews previously iterated by Trump’s BDS-supporting opponents, the antizionist Democratic congresswomen Rashida Tlaib and Ilhan Omar. See Julie Hirschfeld Davis, “Toxic Back Story to the Charge that Jews Have a Dual Loyalty,” The New York Times: International Edition, August 23, 2019, 10; see also Barri Weiss, “Donald Trump and the “Disloyal” Jews,” The New York Times, August 21, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/08/21/opinion/trump-jews.html.
Farage also says Soros seeks “to undermine democracy and to fundamentally change the makeup, demographically, of the whole European continent” (quoted in Peter Walker, “Farage Criticised for Using Antisemitic Themes to Criticise Soros,” The Guardian, May 12, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/may/12/farage-criticised-for-using-antisemitic-themes-to-criticise-soros). On Trump see Bess Levin, “Trump: ‘A Lot of People’ Say Soros Is Financing the Migrant Caravan,” Vanity Fair, October 31, 2018, https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2018/10/donald-trumpgeorge-soros-caravan; on Orbán see William Echikson, “Viktor Orbán’s Anti-Semitism Problem,” Politico.eu, May 13, 2019, https://www.politico.eu/article/viktor-orban-anti-semitism-problem-hungary-jews/.
Quoted in Coral Davenport and Mark Landler, “Trump Administration Hardens Its Attack on Climate Science,” The New York Times, March 27, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/27/us/politics/trump-climate-science.html.
Quoted in Daniel Sugerman, “Jeremy Corbyn Blamed ‘Zionist Lobby’ for Blood Libel Cleric Raed Salah’s Expulsion from the UK,” The Jewish Chronicle, April 2, 2019, https://www.thejc.com/news/uk-news/jeremy-corbyn-blamedzionist-lobby-for-blood-libel-cleric-raed-salah-s-expulsion-from-the-uk-1.482455.
Quoted in Heather Stewart and Andrew Sparrow, “Jeremy Corbyn: I Used the Term ‘Zionist’ in Accurate Political Sense,” The Guardian, August 24, 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2018/aug/24/corbyn-english-irony-video-reignites-antisemitism-row-labour; see also Robin Simcox, “Jeremy Corbyn Has a Soft Spot for Extremists,” Foreign Policy, October 3, 2018, https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/10/03/jeremy-corbyn-has-a-soft-spot-for-extremists-ira-hamas-hezbollah-britain-labour/.
For an in-depth analysis see Hirsh, Contemporary Left Antisemitism; Dave Rich, The Left’s Jewish Problem: Jeremy Corbyn, Israel and Anti-Semitism (London: Biteback, 2018).
Representative of many other instances, a Labour candidate for parliament in 2019 liked antisemitic posts about Theresa May allegedly following a “Zionist Slave Masters agenda” (as quoted in capital letters). She welcomed the conspiracy myth that the Mossad would be behind ISIS; quoted in Board of Deputies of British Jews, “Joint Statement on Labour’s Peterborough Election Candidate Lisa Forbes,” Board of Deputies of British Jews, June 2, 2019, https://www.bod.org.uk/joint-statement-on-labours-peterborough-election-candidate-lisa-forbes-2/; see also Roger Cohen, “Jeremy Corbyn’s Anti-Semitic Labor Party,” The New York Times, February 28, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/28/opinion/corbyn-berger-anti-semitism.html.
Hirsh, Contemporary Left Antisemitism, 4, 270. Many cases of left-wing antizionist antisemitism seem to resemble centuries-old Christian rather than modern racial antisemitism: in this lens, you may have a chance to “enter humanity” for the time being if you publicly disavow Israel and become an antizionist—which is what BDS requires from Israeli citizens if they do not want to be subjected to boycotts; see also Nelson, Israel Denial.
See Markovits and Beyer, “Jews and Americans as Supervillains.”
Quoted in “Former KKK Leader David Duke calls Rep. Omar ‘Most Important Member of Congress’,” The Tower Magazine, March 8, 2019, http://www.thetower.org/7309-former-kkk-leader-david-duke-calls-rep-omar-most-important-member-of-congress/.
See Tom Embury-Denis, “Steve Bannon and George Galloway ‘hug’ in Kazakhstan after Learning Theresa May Has Resigned,” The Independent, May 24, 2019. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/theresa-may-resigns-steve-bannon-george-galloway-hug-brexit-a8928816.html.
The concept “new antisemitism,” often used to describe this convergence, can be misguided if it equates these new developments with “antizionism.” Attacks on “Zionism” are a long-standing feature of antisemitic propaganda, predating the establishment of the state of Israel, and reaching back to the Nazi Party. Such attacks were already mobilized in that context almost a hundred years ago.
Schwarz-Friesel, Judenhass im Internet, 41.
See ibid., 16.
See ibid, 18, 45.
See José van Dijck, Thomas Poell, and Martijn de Waal, The Platform Society: Public Values in a Connected World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019).
See Lars Rensmann, Demokratie und Judenbild: Antisemitismus in der politischen Kultur der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2004), 499.
Max Fisher and Amanda Taub, “How YouTube radicalized Brazil,” The New York Times International Edition, August 14, 2019, 3.
See also Peter Suciu, “YouTube as Political Influencer takes Spotlight,” August 16, 2019, TechNewsWorld, https://www.technewsworld.com/story/86188.html; and on the role of WhatsApp as a medium to radicalize and mobilize the right see David Nemer, “WhatsApp is radicalizing the right in Bolsonaro’s Brazil,” August 16, 2019, https://www.huffpost.com/entry/brazil-jair-bolsonaro-whatsapp_n_5d542b0de4b05fa9df088ccc.
Marcus, The Definition of Anti-Semitism, 44.
Beyer, “The Globalization of Resentment.”
David Seymour, “‘New Europe,’ Holocaust Memory, and Antisemitism,” in Global Antisemitism: A Crisis of Modernity, vol. 1, ed. Charles Asher Small (New York: Institute for the Study of Global Antisemitism and Policy, 2013), 21–27, 27.
Karin Stögner and Johannes Höpoltseder, “Nationalism and Antisemitism in the Postnational Constellation: Thoughts on Horkheimer, Adorno, and Habermas,” Global Antisemitism: A Crisis of Modernity, vol. 1, ed. Charles Asher Small (New York: Institute for the Study of Global Antisemitism and Policy, 2013), 121–131,130.
See Catherine D. Chatterley, “The Antisemitic Imagination,” in Global Antisemitism, ed. Charles A. Small (Leiden: Brill, 2018), 77–82.
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