The Nature of Postcommunist Antisemitism in East Central Europe: Ideology’s Backdoor Return
This article analyzes contemporary antisemitism and Holocaust distortion in Eastern Europe. The main argument is that Brown and Red, Nazism and Communism, respectively are not at all equal. In Eastern Europe, in particular, antisemitic ideology is grounded on the rehabilitation of anticommunist national “heroes.” The history of the Holocaust is thereby distorted. Based on Maurice Halbwachs’s theory of “social frameworks,” the author shows how “competitive martyrdom,” the “Double Genocide” ideology, and “Holocaust obfuscation” are intertwined. Empirically, the paper examines these concepts in Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Hungary, Serbia and Croatia, and Romania.
Keywords: Double Genocide, Holocaust Distortion, East European antisemitism, Holocaust, Gulag, anticommunism, national identity
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Yehuda Bauer, Rethinking the Holocaust (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), 48, 266; and Yehuda Bauer, “Reviewing the Holocaust Anew in Multiple Contexts,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, April 2, 2009, http:// www.jcpa.org/JCPA/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DRIT=3&DBID=1&LNGID=1&TMID=111&FID=624&PID=0&I- ID=2927&TTL=Reviewing_the_Holocaust_Anew_in_Multiple_Contexts2009.
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Jacques Rupnik, Revoluție–Restaurație [Revolution-Restoration], Lettre internationale (Romanian edition), Winter 1992–93, 4–6.
Andrei Pippidi, Despre Statui și Morminte: Pentru o Teorie a Istoriei Simbolice [On Statues and Tombs: Toward a Theory of Symbolic History] (Iași: Polirom, 2000), 8, 22. The process is still ongoing, as the case of Poland demonstrates: Matthew Day, “Poland to Change its Street Names in Bid to ‘De-communise’ the Country,” The Telegraph, February 18, 2016, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/poland/12164051/Poland-to-change-its-street-names-in-bid-to-de-communise-the-country.html.
On the “Neo-Dmowskism” of the Władysław Gomułka regime (1956–70) in Poland, see Jan C. Behrens, “Nation and Empire: Dilemmas of Legitimacy during Stalinism in Poland (1941–1956),” Nationalities Papers 37, no, 4 (2009): 443–66. On Dmowski himself, see Adam Bromke, Poland’s Politics: Idealism vs. Realism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967), 7–18. On the role played in that regime by former Nazi collaborationist and leader of the prewar fascist Falanga, who broke away from Dmowski’s Endecia, Bolesław Piasecki, as leader of the Catholic Pax movement, see Mikołaj Kunicki, “The Red and the Brown: Boleslaw Piasecki, the Polish Communists, and the Anti-Zionist Campaign in Poland, 1967–68,” East European Politics and Societies 19 (2005): 185–225; and Rafal Pankowski, The Populist Radical Right in Poland: The Patriots (London: Routledge, 2011), 31–39, 50. See also Andrzej Paczkowski, The Spring Will Be Ours: Poland and the Poles from Occupation to Freedom (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2003), 300–6; and Jan T. Gross, “After Auschwitz: The Reality and Meaning of Postwar Anti-Semitism in Poland,” in The Holocaust in International Perspective, ed. Dagmar Herzog (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2006a), 81.
Dan Stone, “Memory Wars in the ‘New Europe,’” in The Oxford Handbook of Postwar European History, ed. Dan Stone (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 714–31; Michael Shafir, “Holocaust Representation in Transitional Romania: An Updated Motivational Typology,” Holocaust Memory and Antisemitism in Central and Eastern Europe (Bucharest: Elie Wiesel National Institute for the Study of the Holocaust in Romania, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2007), 161; Michael Shafir, “Nuremberg II? Le mythe de la dénazification et son utilization dans la martyrologie competitive Shoah-Goulag,” Revue d‘Histoire de la Shoah 194 (Janvier–Juin 2011): 557–82; Michael Shafir, “The ‘Second Nürnberg’: Legend vs. Myth in Postcommunism (I),” Holocaust: Studii și cercetări [Holocaust: Studies and Research], VI, no. 7 (2014b): 109–44; Michael Shafir, “Wars of Memory in Post-Communist Romania,” in Post-Socialist Memory Revisited: Post-Socialist Historiography Between Democratisation and New Politics of History, ed. Oto Luthar (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2016), 59–86.
Shafir, “The ‘Second Nürnberg’ (I),” 121–44; Michael Shafir, “The ‘Second Nürnberg’: Legend vs. Myth in Postcommunism (II),” Holocaus:. Studii și cercetări, [Holocaust: Studies and Research] VIII, no. 7 (2015): 243–52.
I am employing Maurice Halbwachs’s concept of “social frameworks.” See Maurice Halbwachs, Les cadres sociaux de la mémoire. 2 édition (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2008).
On cognitive mapping, see Les Roberts, ed., Mapping Cultures: Place, Practices, Performance (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012). On mental mapping, see Alan K. Henrikson, “The Geographical ‘Mental Maps’ of American Foreign Policy Makers,” International Political Science Association 1, vol. 4 (1980): 495–530. These concepts have been used in general for analyzing decision-making processes at the international leadership level, but all individuals constantly make their own decisions and are influenced by their earlier “cognitive mapping” of the order of things. A cognitive map, one is told by Sandra Breux and Min Reuchamps, might ultimately be reduced to the following formula: “Cognitive map = perception + imagination.” Sandra Breux and Min Reuchhamps, “Introduction,” in Carte mentale et science politique: Regards et perspectives critiques sur l’emploi d’un outil promot- teur, eds. Sandra Breux, Min Reuchamps (Brussels: Peter Lang, 2011), 9–24.
As I put it elsewhere,“while historiography is the privileged field of professionals, memory engulfs entire communities or entire groups within communities. Memory requires no footnotes against which arguments might be checked… It makes little sense to argue against memory, as [Tony] Judt does, since memory is primarily sentiment. And sentiments know no professional boundaries. They are above all shared, which means that not only historians, not only politicians or writers, not just university or high-school graduates, but also shopkeepers, blue-collar workers and peasants constitute the make-up of memory.” (Michael Shafir, “Conceptualizing Hungarian Negationism in Comparative Perspective: Deflection and Obfuscation,”Cahiers d’Etudes Hongroises et Finlandaises 20 [2014a]: 265–310.)
I am using the concept introduced by John-Paul Himka and Joanna Beata Michlic in the title of the book they coedited (Bringing the Dark Past to Light: The Reception of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Europe, eds. John-Paul Himka and Joana Beata Michlic [Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2013]).
Michael Shafir, “Ex Occidente Obscuritas: The Diffusion of Holocaust Denial from West to East,” Studia Hebraica 3 (2003): 23–82.
Menachem Z. Rosensaft, “Poles and the Holocaust in Historical Perspective,” Tablet Magazine, February 22, 2018, http://www.tabletmag.com/scroll/256053/poles-and-the-holocaust-in-historical-perspective?utm_source=tablet- magazinelist&utm_campaign=e37a1800e4-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_02_22&utm_medium=email&utm_ term=0_c308bf8edb-e37a1800e4-207107249.
Michael Shafir, “Between Denial and ‘Comparative Trivialization’: Holocaust Negationism in Post-Communist East Central Europe,” Jerusalem: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, The Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism, ACTA, no. 19 (2002); Michael Shafir, “Rotten Apples, Bitter Pears: An Updated Motivational Typology of Romania’s Radical Right’s Anti-Semitic Postures in Post-Communism,”Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, 7 (21), Winter 2008: 150–187.
For earlier use of the concept, see Jean-Michel Chaumont, La Concurrence des victimes: génocide, identité, recon- naissance (Paris: Éditions La Découverte, 1997); Alain Besançon, Nenorocirea secolului: Despre comunism, Nazism și unicitatea Shoah-ului (Bucharest: Humanitas, 1999) [Translated from the French original Le Malheur du siècle. Sur le Communisme, le Nazisme et l’unicité de la Shoah (Paris: Fayard, 1998)], 138; Omer Bartov, Mirrors of Destruction: War, Genocide and Modern Identity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 71–75; Alan S. Rosenbaum, “Introduction to First Edition,” in Is the Holocaust Unique? Perspectives on Comparative Genocide, ed. Alan S. Rosenbaum (Boulder, CO: Westview, 2001, second edition), 1–9.
On “international regimes,” see Stephen D. Krasner, “Structural Causes and Regime Consequences: Regimes as Intervening Variables,” in International Regimes, ed. Stephen D. Krasner (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983), 1–22.
Michael Shafir, “Memory, Memorials, and Membership: Romanian Utilitarian Anti-Semitism and Marshal Antonescu,” in Romania Since 1989: Politics, Culture and Society, ed. Henry F. Carey (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2004), 67–96.
Zoltán Dujisin,“Post-Communist Europe: On the Path to a Regional Regime of Remembrance?” Paper presented at the Association of the Study of Nationalities, Columbia University, New York, April 24–26, 2014.
Jeffrey K. Olick, The Politics of Regret: On Collective Memory and Political Responsibility (New York: Routledge, 2007).
For the distinction between “myth” and “legend” and its utilization in the politics of postcommunist mnemonic politics, see Shafir, “Conceptualizing Hungarian” and Shafir, “The‘Second Nürnberg’ II.”
“Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism—Press Release,” June 9, 2008, Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation, http://www.webcitation.org/5yf4HFF6d.
There were several documents adopted by The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe that preceded the Prague Declaration, reflecting the“totalitarianism” approach and thereby smoothing the tone and content of the 2008 Declaration. The first was adopted on June 27, 1996 and was titled “Measures to dismantle the heritage of former communist totalitarian systems” (Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, “Resolution 1096: Measures to Dismantle the heritage of the former communist totalitarian systems,” June 27, 1996, http://assem- bly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=16507〈=en). Similarly, on January 25, 2006, the same Assembly adopted Resolution 1481 on the “Need for international condemnation of crimes of totalitarian communist regimes” (Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, “Resolution 1481: Need for international condemnation of crimes of totalitarian communist regimes,” January 25, 2006, http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/ XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=17403〈=en). The latter resolution was specifically mentioned in the Prague Declaration.
György Schöpflin, “United Europe, United History,” January 22, 2008, http://schopflingyorgy.hu/news_display/ united_europe_united_history/.
Dujisin, “Post-Communist Europe.”
Peter Jambrek, ed., Crimes Committed by Totalitarian Regimes (Ljubljana: Slovenian Presidency of the Council of Europe, 2008), accessed March 17, 2018, http://www.mp.gov.si/fileadmin/mp.gov.si/pageuploads/mp.gov.si/ PDF/poprava_krivic/Crimes_committed_by_Totalitarian_Regimes.pdf.
Platform of European Memory and Conscience—A Brief History, August 17, 2011, https://www.memoryandcon- science.eu/2011/08/17/new-webpage-test/.
Maria Mälksoo, “The Memory Politics of Becoming European: The East European Subalterns and the Collective Memory of Europe,” European Journal of International Relations 1, vol. 4 (2009), 653, 656.
Mälksoo,“Memory,” 653–54. 30 Ibid., 654.
Among the very first critics of the Prague Declaration was political scientist Clemens Heni, “The Prague Declaration, Holocaust Obfuscation and anti-Semitism,” in Anatomy of Hatred: Essays on Anti-Semitism, ed. Vĕra Tydlitátová/Alena Hanzová (Pilsen: University of West Bohemia, The Centre of Middle Eastern Studies, 2009), 47–59; Clemens Heni, “Die ‘Prager Deklaration’. Antisemitismus im neuen Europa,” Tribüne: Zeitschrift zum Verständnis des Judentums 49, no. 194 (2010): 106–12; on Gauck, Holocaust trivialization, and the Prague Declaration, see Clemens Heni, Thomas Weidauer, eds., Ein Super-GAUck. Politische Kultur im neuen Deutschland (Berlin: Edition Critic, 2012); and the chapter on the Prague Declaration in Clemens Heni, Antisemitism: A Specific Phenomenon. Holocaust Trivialization—Islamism—Post-colonial and Cosmopolitan anti-Zionism (Berlin: Edition Critic, 2013), 350–59.
Andrei Pleșu, Gabriel Liiceanu, Horia-Roman Patapievici, O Idee care Sucește Mințile [A Mind-Twisting Idea] (Bucharest: Humanitas, 2014), 7–8.
Bartov, Mirrors, 79.
William A. Shabas, “Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity: Clarifying the Relationship,” in The Genocide Convention: The Legacy of 60 Years, ed. H. G. van der Wilt et al. (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2012), 9.
Shabas, Genocide, 7.
“According to the most recent definition, comprised within the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, crimes against humanity include persecution against any identifiable group or collectivity on political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender or other grounds that are universally recognized as impermissible under international law. This contemporary approach to crimes against humanity is really no more than the ‘expanded’ definition of genocide that many have argued for over the years.” (William A. Shabas, Genocide in International Law: The Crime of Crimes, 2nd ed. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 12.
Shabas, Genocide, 4.
Marianne Hirsch, The Generation of Postmemory: Writing and Visual Culture After the Holocaust (New York: Columbia University Press, 2012).
Robert Bellah et al., Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008), 229–30.
Jeffrey C. Alexander, “Toward a Theory of Cultural Trauma,” in Cultural Trauma and Collective Identity, ed. Jeffrey C. Alexander et al. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 1 (emphasis mine).
Jan T. Gross, Neighbors (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001); Jan T. Gross, Fear. Anti-Semitism in Poland After Auschwitz (New York: Random House, 2006); Jan T. Gross, with Irena Grudzińska Gross, Golden Harvest: Events at the Periphery of the Holocaust (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012); Antony Polonski, Joanna B. Michlic, eds., The Neighbors Respond: The Controversy Over the Jedwabne Massacre in Poland (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004); Matthew Day, “Polish-American Historian Could Be Stripped of Honours after Claiming Poles Killed More Jews,” The Telegraph, November 2, 2015, http://www. telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/poland/11970221/Polish-American-historian-could-be-stripped- of-honours-after-claiming-Poles-killed-more-Jews.html?utm_campaign=Echobox&utm_medium=So- cial&utm_source=Facebook; Alice Develey, “La Pologne veut déchoir un historien de la Shoah,” Le Figaro, February 16, 2016, http://www.lefigaro.fr/culture/2016/02/15/03004-20160215ARTFIG00185-la-pologne- veut-dechoir-un-historien-de-la-shoah.php.
Cited in Joanna Beata Michlic and Małgorzata Melchior, “The Memory of the Holocaust in Post-1989 Poland: Renewal–Its Accomplishments and Its Powerlessness,” in Bringing the Dark Past to Light, 416.
Geneviève Zubrzycki, The Crosses of Auschwitz: Nationalism and Religion in Post-Communist Poland (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2006).
Michael Shafir, “Istorie, Memorie și Mit în Martirologia Competitivă Holocaust-Gulag”[History, Memory and Myth in the Holocaust-Gulag Competitive Martyrdom], in Miturile Politice În România Contemporană [Political Myths in Contemporary Romania], ed. Sergiu Gherghina, Sergiu Miscoiu (Iași: Institutul Europeean, 2012), 347.
Alexander, Toward a Theory, 8–9.
Yael Zerubavel, Recovered Roots: Collective Memory and the Making of Israeli National Tradition (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995), 6.
Zerubavel, Recovered Roots, 8.
Ibid., author’s emphasis.
“A myth cannot be refuted, since it is, at bottom, identical with the conviction of a group, being the expression of these convictions in the language of movement; and it [is] in consequence unanalyzable into parts which could be placed on the plane of historical descriptions” (George Sorel, Reflections on Violence [New York: Collier Books, 1961], 50). As Vladimir Tismaneanu rightly remarks: “Myths are not banal descriptions of the desired society, but calls for action.”(Vladimir Tismaneanu, Fantasies of Salvation: Democracy, Nationalism and Myth in Post-Communist Europe [Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998], 13.)
Dujisin, “Post-Communist Europe.”
In the Soviet Union, the lishentsy were“those who in the 1920s and early 1930s were legally disenfranchised, sub- ject to all sort of discrimination, and generally dishonored.”They included“kulaks, czarist officers, priests, the petty traders and industrialists of the New Economic Policy, and the bourgeoisie and nobles of the old regime; many of them were fired, evicted from their homes, denied rations, or barred from education.”The lishentsy were officially replaced as a category in the 1930s by the“social marginals,” whom Eric Weitz describes as“a highly fluid category that largely overlapped with the lishentsy and demonstrated disturbing similarities with the ‘asocials’ targeted by the Nazis.” (Eric D. Weitz, A Century of Genocide: Utopias of Race and Nation [Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003], 65.) Many of the East European intellectuals who became partisans of competitive martyrdom would recognize themselves in this description.
There have been precedents to this endeavor, particularly in West Germany (see Bartov, Mirrors, 39, 112–14.
European Parliament,“European Parliament resolution on European conscience and totalitarianism,”April 2, 2009, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+IM-PRESS+20090401IPR53245+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN.
OSCEPA.org, “Vilnius Declaration of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly and Resolutions Adopted at the Eighteenth Annual Session, Vilnius, 29 June to 3 July 2009 (pp. 48–49), accessed March 17, 2018, https://www. oscepa.org/documents/all-documents/annual-sessions/2009-vilnius/declaration-6/261-2009-vilnius-declara- tion-eng/file.
Henry Rousso, “Introduction: The Legitimacy of a Historical Comparison,” in Stalinism and Nazism: History and Memory Compared, ed. Henry Rousso (Lincoln: Nebraska University Press, 2004), 1–24 (English language edition, edited and introduced by Richard J. Golsan, translated by Lucy B. Golsan, Thomas C. Hilde and Peter S. Rogers from the original Stalinisme et Nazisme: Histoire et mémoire comparée [Brussells: Éditions Compexe], 1999).
Adrian Cioflâncă,“Nazism și comunism, laolaltă [Nazism and Communism, Jointly],” Ziarul de Iași, August 21, 2009. Available on the author’s blog, http://adriancioflanca.blogspot.com/2009/08/nazism-si-comunism-laolalta.html.
Vygantas Vareikis, “‘Double Genocide’ and the ‘Holocaust-Gulag’ Rhetoric in Lithuania.” Paper presented at the international conference“Jews and Antisemitism in the Public Discourse of Post-Communist European Countries,” Jerusalem, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, October 24–26, 2000.
In Lithuania, “genocide” has been officially “redefined to include victims of Soviet deportations” and the NKVD and the KGB were“officially declared to be criminal organizations, thus bringing them in line with the Nuremberg tribunal’s definition of the SS”(Omer Bartov, “Conclusion,” in Bringing the Dark Past to Light, 668).
Gabriel Andreescu, “Interzicerea Negării Crimelor Comuniste pe Plan European: Norme, Ideologie, Drepturi” [The Prohibition of Communist Crimes Negation at European Level: Norms, Ideology, Rights], Noua Revistă de drep- turile omului [The New Review of Human Rights], 1 (2011): 41–58; Vladimir Socor, “Moldova Condemns Communism at Long Last,”Eurasia Daily Monitor 9, no. 135 (July 12, 2012), http://www.jamestown.org/programs/edm/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=39633&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=587&no_cache=1#.VJVoCZ0BUkSocor, 2012
Bartov, Mirrors, 71.
Stéphane Courtois, “Introduction: The Crimes of Communism,” in The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, trans. Johnathan Murphy and Mark Kramer, ed. Stéphane Courtois et al. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), 9, 17, 19, 23.
Stéphane Courtois, Communism si Totalitarism [Communism and Totalitarianism] (Iași: Polirom, 2011), translated by Anca Ciucan Țuțuianu from the French original Communisme et Totalitarisme (Paris: Perrin, 2009).
Weitz, A Century, x. Courtois is by no means the only Western historian to put communist crimes on par with Nazi crimes. See, among other authors, Norman M. Naimark, “Stalin and the Question of Soviet Genocides,” in Political Violence, Belief, Behavior and Legitimation, ed. Paul Hollander (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 39–47; Norman M. Naimark, Stalin’s Genocides (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010); James A. Gregor, The Faces of Janus: Marxism and Fascism in the Twentieth Century (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000); Vladimir Tismaneanu, The Devil in History: Communism, Fascism, and Some Lessons of the Twentieth Century (Berkley: University of California Press, 2012).
Gheorghe Buzatu, Așa a început Holocaustul împotriva poporului român [How the Holocaust Against the Romanian People Began] (Bucharest: Editura Majadahonda, 1995).
See Michael Shafir, “Unacademic Academics: Holocaust Deniers and Trivializers in Post-Communist Romania,” Nationalities Papers 42, vol. 6 (2014c): 942–64.
Paul Goma, Săptămâna roșie, 28 iunie–3 iulie 1940 sau Basarabia și evreii [Red Week. 28 June–3 July 1940 or Bessarabia and the Jews] (Bucharest: Editura Vremea XXI, 2004).
For an important review, see Radu Ioanid, “Haïr à Belleville ou la chute d’un ex-dissident roumain,” Le meilleurs des mondes 5 (automne 2007): 136–41.
The endeavor met with success. See, for example, Steven Rosefielde, Red Holocaust (London: Routledge, 2010).
Alexandra Laignel-Lavastine,“Fascism and Communism in Romania: The Comparative Stakes and Uses,”in Stalinism and Nazism: History and Memory Compared, ed. Henry Rousso (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004), 194–217. English language edition edited and introduced by Richard J. Golsan, translated by Lucy B. Golsan, Thomas C. Hilde and Peter S. Rogers from the original Stalinisme et Nazisme: Histoire et mémoire comparée (Brussells: Éditions Compexe, 1999).
See the section titled“The Capture of Historiography by Ideology” in Laignel-Lavastine,“Fascism and Communism.”
Bartov, “Conclusion,” 668. 74 Ibid., 668–69.
Michael Shafir,“Hungarian Politics and the Post-1989 Legacy of the Holocaust,”in The Holocaust in Hungary: Sixty Years Later, ed. Randolph L. Braham and Brewster S. Chamberlin (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006), 276–77.
Randolph L. Braham, “The Assault on the Historical Memory of the Holocaust,” Hungarian Spectrum, March 22, 2014a, http://hungarianspectrum.wordpress.com/2014/03/22/randolph-l-braham-the-assault-on-the-historical- memory-of-the-holocaust/, 208. Note that this is a revised version of Randolph L. Braham, “Assault on Historical Memory: Hungarian Nationalists and the Holocaust,” in Studies on the Holocaust: Selected Writings. Vol. 2, ed. Randolph L. Braham (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001), 197–224.
Shafir, “Conceptualizing Hungarian.”
Cited in Braham,“Assault”; Eva Balogh,“Mária Schmidt’s Revisionist History of World War II and the Holocaust. Part II,” Hungarian Spectrum, June 10, 2014, http://hungarianspectrum.wordpress.com/2014/06/10/maria-schmidts- revisionist-history-of-world-war-ii-and-the-holocaust-part-ii/.
See Paul Hanebrink, “Transnational Culture War: Christianity, Nation, and the Judeo-Bolshevik Myth in Hungary, 1890–1920,” Journal of Modern History 80, no. 1 (March 2008): 55–80; André Geritz, The Myth of Jewish Communism: A Historical Interpretation (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2009); Eliza Ablovatski, “The 1919 Central European Revolutions and the Judeo-Bolshevik Myth,” European Review of History 17, no. 3 (2010): 473–89. In an article published in 2013, Paul Hanebrink wrote: “Invoking the specter of Judeo-Bolshevism was one way to establish a dubious moral symmetry and radical rightists like István Csurka often pointed out in the 1990s that leading communists like Mátyás Rákosi and Ernő Gerő, as well as important figures in the communist security apparatus, like Gábor Péter… had been Jews”(Paul Hanebrink,“The Memory of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Hungary,” in Bringing the Dark Past to Light, 274).
One can only join Eva Balogh (“Maria Schmidt’s Revisionist History,” 2014) in wondering whether Orbán’s staunch supporters such as Schmidt know that the premier’s father used to be party secretary at the company he currently owns and that the premier himself was a secretary of the Hungarian Young Communist League.
Dovid Katz, “On Three Definitions: Genocide, Holocaust Denial, Holocaust Obfuscation,” in A Litmus Test Case of Modernity. Examining Modern Sensibilities and the Public Domain in the Baltic States at the Turn of the Century, ed. Leonidas Donskis (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2009), 259–77; Dovid Katz, “Is Eastern European ‘Double Genocide’ Revisionism Reaching Museums?,” Dapim: Studies on the Holocaust, 30, no. 3 (2016): 1–30.
Dovid Katz,“The Seventy Years Declaration and the Simple Truth,” The Algemeiner, February 3, 2012a, http://www. algemeiner.com/2012/02/03/the-seventy-years-declaration-and-the-simple-truth/.
Katz, “Seventy Years.”
Simon Round, “Interview with Efraim Zuroff,” The Jewish Chronicle, February 4, 2010, https://www.thejc.com/ lifestyle/interviews/interview-efraim-zuroff-1.13807; see also Michel Zlotowski, “EU Halts Move to Downgrade Shoah,” The Jewish Chronicle, December 29, 2010, http://www.thejc.com/news/world-news/43123/eu-halts- move-downgrade-shoah; Efraim Zuroff, “Eastern Europe: Antisemitism in the Wake of Holocaust Related Issues,” Jewish Political Studies Review 17.1-2 (Spring 2005): 63–79, online version at: http://www.jcpa.org/phas/phas-zu- roff-s05.htm.
Bartov, “Conclusion,” 667.
February 16, 1918 marks the restoration of Lithuania’s independence and March 11, 1990 marks the nation’s post- communist restoration of independence.
Sara Shner-Neshamit, “Jewish-Lithuanian Relations during World War II: History and Rhetoric,” in Bitter Legacy: Confronting the Holocaust in the USSR,” ed. Zvi Gitelman (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997), 169–71.
A Klaipeda court overruled the ban in May 2010, finding that wearing swastikas was not grounds for prosecu- tion, as they were “a valuable symbol of the Baltic culture, an ancient sign of our ancestors, which had been stolen from them and treacherously used by other peoples” (“Lithuanian Court: Swastikas a Historic Legacy,” Jewish Journal, May 2010, http://www.jewishjournal.com/world/article/lithuanian_court_swastikas_a_historic_ legacy_20100521).
Dovid Katz, “Over 1000 Neo-Nazis Fill Main Vilnius Boulevard on Lithuanian Independence Day,” Defending History, March 11, 2012b, http://defendinghistory.com/over-1000-neo-nazis-fill-main-vilnius-boulevard-on-lith- uanian-independence-day/32439; Efraim Zuroff, “The Threat of Baltic Ultra-nationalism,” The Guardian, April 3, 2010a, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2010/apr/03/baltic-far-right-eu; Sam Socol, “Wiesenthal Center Protests Lithuanian Neo-Nazi March,”The Jerusalem Post, February 17, 2016, http://www.jpost. com/International/Wiesenthal-Center-protests-Lithuanian-neo-Nazi-march-445135; Lithuanian Court Acquits Teen Charged Who Wore Nazi Uniform, The Yeshiva World, October 25, 2008, http://www.theyeshivaworld.com/ news/general/24895/lithuanian-court-acquits-teen-charged-who-wore-nazi-uniform.html.
Wiesenthal Center, “Lithuanian Government Emboldens Neo-Nazis,” The Jewish Press, March 2, 2014, http://www.jewishpress.com/news/breaking-news/wiesenthal-center-lithuanian-government-emboldens-neo-nazis/2014/03/02/; “Lithuania Blasted for ‘Glorifying’ Hitler Ally,” Forward, February 28, 2014, http:// forward.com/articles/193594/lithuania-blasted-for-glorifying-hitler-ally/; Efraim Zuroff, “Standing Up to Anti-Semitism in the Baltics,” Tablet Magazine, March 28, 2014, http://www.tabletmag.com/scroll/167625/ baltic-neo-nazi-nationalists; Grant Arthur Gochin, “Will Lithuania Continue to Honor Nazi Collaborators?,” The Jerusalem Post, August 22, 2015, http://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Will-Lithuania-continue-to-honor- Nazi-collaborators-412701.
Efraim Zuroff, “No Tolerance for False History,” The Jerusalem Post, May 1, 2010b, http://www.jpost.com/Opinion/ Op-Ed-Contributors/No-tolerance-for-false-history. One of them, Algimantas Dailidė, was, however, sentenced to five years in prison, but the judges refused to implement his sentence on grounds of age. Yet journalists who vis- ited Dailidė in Germany two years later found him in reasonably good health. Efraim Zuroff, Operation Last Chance: One Man’s Quest to Bring Nazi Criminals to Justice (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009a), 110.
“Shock of 2012: 1941 Nazi Puppet Prime Minister Reburied with Full Honors,” Defending History, December 31, 2012, http://defendinghistory.com/new/34584; “Lithuania Blasted” (Forward 2014); Dovid Katz, “Would a Jewish Museum in Vilnius Graywash the Lithuanian Holocaust?,” Defending History, July 7, 2013, http://defendinghistory.com/would-a-jewish-museum-in-vilnius-graywash-the-lithuanian-holocaust/55902; Dovid Katz, “For Seventh Year Running, Neo-Nazis and Ultranationalists Given Center of Vilnius on Independence Day,” Defending History, March 11, 2014, http://defendinghistory.com/seventh-year-running-neo-nazis-ultranationalists-center-vilnius-independence-day/64617.
He had published his memoirs in 1979; see Yitzhak Arad, The Partisan: From the Valley of Death to Mt. Zion (New York: Holocaust Library, 1979).
Efraim Zuroff, “The Nazi Whitewash,” The Guardian, September 28, 2009b, https://www.theguardian.com/com- mentisfree/2009/sep/28/eric-pickles-tories-latvia-nazi.
“Latvian President Defends Nazi Commemoration,” YNet News, April 3, 2012, http://www.ynetnews.com/arti- cles/0,7340,L-4197991,00.html; Efraim Zuroff, “Don’t Rehabilitate the Guilty,” Haaretz, January 13, 2012, https:// www.haaretz.com/1.5164461. Ronald Binet, “Will Intellectuals in Western Countries Continue Their Silence on Latvia’s Glorification of Hitler’s Waffen-SS?,” Defending History, March 19, 2012, http://defendinghistory. com/32817/32817.
AlexanderWelscher,“Latvian Memorial SeesWaffen-SSas Freedom Fighters,”Business Recorder, September 26, 2012, http://www.brecorder.com/articles-a-letters/187:articles/1242085:latvian-memorial-sees-waffen-ss-as-free- dom-fighters/?date=2012-09-26.
“Latvia Bans Nazi, Soviet Symbols at Public Events,” Haaretz, June 20, 2013, http://www.haaretz.com/jewish-world/jewish-world-news/latvia-bans-nazi-soviet-symbols-at-public-events-1.531094; “Latvian President Promulgates Constitution’s Preamble,” The Baltic Course, July 8, 2014, http://www.baltic-course.com/eng/legislation/?doc=93760.
Tauno Rahnu, “Estonian Freedom Fighters,” Avaleht, accessed March 18, 2018, http://www.eestileegion. com/?home/background/estonian-freedom-fighters.html; Meike Wulf, “The Struggle for Official Recognition of ‘Displaced’ Group Memories in Post-Soviet Estonia,” in Past in the Making: Historical Revisionism in Central Europe after 1989, ed. Michal Kopeček (Budapest: CEU Press, 2008), 234.
Zuroff, “Don’t rehabilitate.”
Yehuda Bauer, “Reviewing the Holocaust Anew in Multiple Contexts,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, May 1, 2009, http://www.jcpa.org/JCPA/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DRIT=3&DBID=1&LNGID=1&TMID=111&-FID=624&PID=0&IID=2927&TTL=Reviewing_the_Holocaust_Anew_in_Multiple_Contexts.
“Minister of Defence Sends Greeting to Freedom Fighter Union Reunion,” News. Postimees, July 6, 2013, http://news.postimees.ee/1291512/minister-of-defence-sends-greeting-to-freedom-fighter-union-reunion.
Leena Hietanen, Petri Kroh,“Estonia’s Last ‘Knight’s Cross’ Waffen-SS Man Gets Full Military Funeral,”Defending History, January 12, 2014, http://defendinghistory.com/last-knights-cross-waffenss-veteran-buried-in-estonia/62614.
Anton Weiss-Wendt, “Victim of History: Perceptions of the Holocaust in Estonia,” in Bringing the Dark Past to Light,195–211.
François Hartog, Regimes of Historicity. Presentism and the Experience of Time. Translated by Saskia Brown (New York: Columbia University Press, 2015); Diana Mishkova, Balázs Trecsényi, Marja Jalava (eds.), Regimes of Historicity in Southeastern and Northern Europe, 1890–1945: Discourses of Identity and Temporality (Houndsmills and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014).
Shafir, “Conceptualizing Hungarian Negationism.” 109 Shafir,“Hungarian Politics.”
Shafir, “Conceptualizing Hungarian Negationism,” 281.
Jobbik commemorates anniversary of Horthy’s 1919 Budapest entry, Daily News Hungary, November 16, 2014,
https://dailynewshungary.com/jobbik-commemorates-anniversary-of-horthys-1919-budapest-entry/. 112 Csaba Tóth, “Jobbik Commemorates Miklós Horthy’s 1919 March on Budapest,” Budapest Beacon, November 17, 2014, http://budapestbeacon.com/news-in-brief/jobbik-commemorates-miklos-horthys-1919-march-on-budapest/.
Shafir, “Conceptualizing Hungarian Negationism,” 280.
Donáth had earlier belonged to a secret racialist organization called Magyar Testvéri Közösség (Hungarian Brotherly Community), established in 1925. Even at his trial in 1947, he expressed strong antisemitic views. See Eva Balogh, “Another Attempt to Erect a Statue Honoring an Anti-Semitic Racist,” Hungarian Spectrum, February 25, 2016, http://hungarianspectrum.org/2016/02/25/another-attempt-to-erect-a-statue-honoring-an-anti- semitic-racist/.
Krisztina Than, “Hungary Protest Prevents Unveiling of Statue for Anti-Jewish World War 2 Politician,” The Star Online, February 25, 2016, http://www.thestar.com.my/news/world/2016/02/25/hungary-protest- prevents-unveiling-of-statue-for-antijewish-world-war-2-politician/; “Hungary Protest Prevents Unveiling of Statue for Anti-Jewish World War Two Politician,” NDTV, February 24, 2016, http://www.ndtv.com/world-news/ hungary-protest-prevents-unveiling-of-statue-for-anti-jewish-world-war-two-politician-1280978; “Protesters Block Statue Unveiling of Anti-Semitic Official,” The Big Story, February 24, 2016, http://bigstory.ap.org/article/6542892f8a184391a92adcd2d357f7b1/protesters-block-statue-unveiling-anti-semitic-official; Balogh, “Another Attempt.”
Eva Balogh, “Bálint Hóman Is Rehabilitated,” Hungarian Spectrum, May 17, 2015a, http://hungarianspectrum. org/2015/05/17/balint-homan-is-rehabilitated/.
Obama said in a speech marking International Holocaust Day in January 2016:“[W]hen a statue of an anti-Semitic leader from World War Two was planned in Hungary, we led the charge to convince their government to reverse course … This was not a side note to our relations with Hungary, this was central to maintaining a good relationship with the United States, and we let them know.” “PM’s Press Office: President Obama’s remarks on Hóman statue ‘unhelpful,’” Hungarian Spectrum, January 29, 2016; Eva Balogh,“Viktor Orbán, the Man Responsible for the Statue Honoring the Anti-Semitic Bálint Hóman,” Hungarian Spectrum, December 16, 2015b, http://hungarian- spectrum.org/2015/12/16/viktor-orban-the-man-responsible-for-the-statue-honoring-the-anti-semitic-balint-homan/.
Wulf, “The Struggle,” 223–25, distinguishes four dimensions of “memory politics,” under which he means “the different uses of public history”: a moral dimension, ideological dimension, political dimension, and existential dimension.
“Court Rehabilitates WW2-Era Chetnik Leader Draza Mihailovic,” b92, May 14, 2015, http://www.b92.net/eng/ news/society.php?yyyy=2015&mm=05&dd=14&nav_id=94116; “Draza Mihailovic Rehabilitated,” InSerbia, May 14, 2015, http://inserbia.info/today/2015/05/draza-mihailovic-rehabilitated/; Marija Ristić, Sven Milekić, “Serbia Rehabilitates WWII Chetnik Leader Mihailovic,” BalkanInsight, May 14, 2015, http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/ article/serbia-rehabilitates-wwii-chetnik-leader-mihailovic.
Not only were the Chetniks involved in repressing Croats during World War II, but more recently their “successors,” led by Vojslav Šešelj, were actively involved in the Serb-Croat post-Yugoslav secession wars. As leader of the revived Chetniks, Šešelj is on trial before the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague. He was acquitted in the first instance in March 2016, but the prosecution appealed and the second instance’s verdict is due in April 2018. Šešelj was “temporarily” released from his Hague pre-trial detention in 2014, ostensibly for cancer treatment, and has hence refused to return, being currently a member of the Serbian parliament.
Jovan Byford, From “Traitor” to “Saint”: Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović in Serbian Public Memory (Jerusalem: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, The Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism, ACTA no. 22, 2004); Jovan Byford, Denial and Repression of Antisemitism: Post-Communist Remembrance of the Serbian Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović (Budapest: CEU Press, 2008).
Ivana Nicolić, “Rehabilitation of Nazi-Backed Leader Begins in Belgrade,” BalkanInsight, December 7, 2015, http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/news-12-07-2015; Sam Sokol, “Serbia Begins Rehabilitating Legacy of Controversial Nazi-Era Leader,” The Jerusalem Post, December 15, 2015, http://www.jpost.com/Diaspora/Serbia- begins-rehabilitating-legacy-of-controversial-Nazi-era-leader-437389.
Ivana Nicolić, “Nazi-Backed Leader Milan Nedic ‘Helped Serbs,’” BalkanInsight, February 8, 2016, http://www.balk- aninsight.com/en/article/nazi-backed-leader-nedic-helped-serbs-witness-02-08-2016.
Quoted in Sven Milekić, Marjia Ristić, Denis Dzidić, “Croatian President Slams Chetnik General’s Rehabilitation,” BalkanInsight, May 14, 2015, http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/croatian-president-slams-chetnik- general-s-rehabilitation.
“Croatian Leader Pays Tribute to Killed Pro-Nazi Collaborators,” Digital Journal, May 14, 2015, http://www.digitaljournal.com/news/world/croatian-leader-pays-tribute-to-killed-pro-nazi-collaborators/article/433277.
Sven Milekić, “Croatia Pays Tribute to Jasenovac Camp Victims,” BalkanInsight, April 27, 2015a, http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/ww2-concentration-camp-jasenovac-memory-lives-after-70-years.
Shafir, Between Denial, 50–51.
Ljiljana Radonić, “Vergangenheitspolitik in Kroatien–Vom Geschichtsrevisionismus zur Aufarbeitung der Vergangenheit?,” Zeitgeschichte XXXV, no. 5 (2008): 282–97; Ljiljana Radonić, “Krieg um die Erinnerung an das KZ Jasenovac-Kroatien zwischen Revisionismus und europäischen Standards,” in Kulturen der Differenz— Transformationsprozesse in Zentraleuropa nach 1989, ed. Heinz Fassmann, Wolfgang Müller-Funk, Heidemarie Uhl (Vienna: Vienna University Press, 2009a), 179–94; Ljiljana Radonić, “Revisionismus und Vergangenheitspolitik in Kroatien–die Europäisierung des Holocaust?,” in Europäische Geschichtskultur—Europäische Geschichtspolitik. Vom Erfinden, Entdecken, Erarbeiten der Bedeutung von Erinnerung und Geschichte für das Verständnis und Selbstverständnis Europas, ed. Christoph Kühberger, Clemens Sedmak (Innsbruck, Vienna: Studienverlag, 2009b), 75–86, Ljiljana Radonić, Krieg um die Erinnerung—Kroatische Vergangenheitspolitik zwischen Revisionismus und europäischen Standards (Frankfurt am Main: Campus-Verlag, 2010); Ljiljana Radonić,“‘Unsere’ Helden, Opfer, Täter. Der Zweite Weltkrieg im kroatischen Schulbuch,” Osteuropa 11 (2011): 97–159; Ljiljana Radonić, “Standards of evasion: Croatia and the ‘Europeanization of memory,’” Eurozine, June 21, 2013, http://www.eurozine.com/arti- cles/2012-04-06-radonic-en.html.
Sven Milekić,“Croatia: The Fascist Legacy,” Osservatorio balcani e caucaso, September 3, 2015, http://www.balcani- caucaso.org/eng/Regions-and-countries/Croatia/Croatia-the-fascist-legacy-163852.
Ina Vukić, “Croatia: Goldstein—Pundits of Totalitarian Regimes’ Victims Discrimination, Croatia, the War and the Future,” September 8, 2013, http://inavukic.com/2013/09/08/croatia-goldstein-pundits-of-totalitarian- regimes-victims-discrimination/.
Sven Milekić, “Croatia’s New Cabinet Draws Mixed Response,” BalkanInsight, January 22, 2016a, http://www. balkaninsight.com/en/article/new-croatian-government-brings-a-lot-new-faces-01-22-2016; Sven Milekić, “Croatian Activists Target ‘Reactionary’ Culture Minister,” BalkanInsight, January 28, 2016b, http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/croatian-activists-target-reactionary-culture-minister-01-27-2016; Sven Milekić, “Croatia Parliament Backs Controversial WWII Commemoration,” BalkanInsight, February 5, 2016c, http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/croatian-parliament-endorses-again-ww2-bleiburg-commemoration-02-05-2016; Sven Milekić, “Croatian Culture Minister Wrote for Pro-Fascist Journal,” BalkanInsight, February 11, 2016d, http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/croatian-culture-minister-wrote-for-pro-nazi-journal-02-11-2016.
Richard Wurmbrand, Torturedfor Christ (Bartlesville, OK: Living Sacrifice Book Company, 1998); Richard Wurmbrand, With God in Solitary Confinement (Bartlesville, OK: Living Sacrifice Book Company, 2001); Richard Wurmbrand, In God’s Underground (Bartlesville, OK: Living Sacrifice Book Company, 2004).
Florel Manu,“Mitul Arsenie Boca: Pelerinajele la Prislop, o Afacere de Peste 15 Milioane de Euro pe An [The Arsenie Boca Myth: The Pilgrimages to Prislop—an Over 15 Million Yearly Business],” Adevărul Financiar, May 25, 2015, http://adevarulfinanciar.ro/articol/mitul-arsenie-boca-o-afacere-de-peste-15-milioane-de-euro-pe-an/.
Sorin Lavric, Constantin Noica și Mișcarea Legionară (Bucharest: Humanitas, 2014).
“Radu Preda, Noul Director al IICMER: ‘Este de Datoria mea să Pun pe Agenda Institutului Cazurile Sfinților Închisorilor’” [Radu Preda, the New IICMER Director: “It is my obligation to pave on the Institute’s Agenda the Case of the Saints of Prison”], Cuvântul Ortodox, April 26, 2014, http://www.cuvantul-ortodox.ro/recoman- dari/2014/04/26/radu-preda-iiccmer-sfintii-inchisorilor/.
Răzvan Codrescu, Sfinții Închisorilor în Lumea Credinței. Din Rezistența României Creștine Împotriva Ateismului Comunist [The Saints of Prison in the World of Faith: From Christian Romania’s Resistance Against Communist Atheism]. Texte alese, prefață și note de Răzvan Codrescu (Bucharest: Editura Lumea Credinței, 2014b); see also Răzvan Codrescu, Cartea mărturisitorilor. Pentru o istorie a învrednicirii românești (Bucharest, Pitești: Editura Rost and Fundația Sfinții Închisorilor, 2014a).
Cezarina Condurache, Chipuri ale Demintății Românești: Eroi ai Neamului și Sfinți ai Închisorilor [Faces of Romanian Dignity: Heroes of the Nation and Saints of Prison] (Bucharest: Editura Evdokimos, Fundația Profesor George Manu, 2015a).
Cezarina Condurache, ed., Eroi Anticomuniști și Sfinții Închisorilor Reincriminați prin Legea 2017/2015 [The Anticommunist Heroes and Saints of Prison Re-Incriminated by Law 217/2015] (Bucharest: Editura Evdokimos, Fundația Profesor George Manu, 2015b).
Legea nr. 217/2015 pentru Modificarea şi Completarea Ordonanţei de Urgenţă a Guvernului nr. 31/2002 Privind Interzicerea Organizaţiilor şi Simbolurilor cu Caracter Fascist, Rasist sau Xenofob şi a Promovării Cultului Persoanelor Vinovate de Săvârşirea unor Infracţiuni Contra Păcii şi Omenirii [Law no. 217 for the Modification and Completion of Government Ordinance no. 31/2002 Concerning the Prohibition of Organizations and Symbols of Fascist, Racist and Xenophobe Character and the Promotion of the Cult of Personalities Guilty of Crimes Against Peace and Humanity], Monitorul Oficial al României, July 15, 2015.
Sabina Fati, “Interviu cu Directorul ICCMER: Legea Antilegionară Este Procomunistă [The Anti-Legionary Law is Pro-Communist],”‘România liberă, August 23, 2015, http://www.romanialibera.ro/opinii/interviuri/interviu-cu-di- rectorul-iccmer--legea-antilegionara-este-procomunista-390239; “Dispute pe tema legii ‘anti-legionare’ – Cinci membri IICCMER cer demisia directorului Radu Preda,” Lumea alive, September 1, 2015, https://lumealive.com/ stiri/dispute-pe-tema-legii-anti-legionare-cinci-membri-iiccmer-cer-demisia-directorului-radu-preda/.
Andrei Pleșu,“O Dezbatere Blocată [A Blocked Debate],” Adevărul, August 3, 2015, http://adevarul.ro/news/soci- etate/o-dezbatere-blocata-1_55bef291f5eaafab2c2f778c/index.html; Andrei Pleșu, “Spiritul Civic în Acțiune...” [The Civic Spirit in Action…], Adevărul, September 7, 2015, http://m.adevarul.ro/news/societate/spiritul- civic-actiune-1_55ec12c6f5eaafab2c506b40/index.html; Andrei Pleșu, “Greșeală, vină, justiție” [Mistake, Guilt, Justice], Adevărul, February 1, 2016, http://adevarul.ro/news/eveniment/greseala-vina-justitie-1_56af- 110d5ab6550cb8559994/index.html. For an excellent response, see Radu Ioanid, “Aproximațiile Păgubitoare ale Domnului Andrei Pleșu [Mr. Andrei Pleșu’s Harmful Approximations],” Adevărul, February 5, 2016, http:// adevarul.ro/news/eveniment/aproximatiile-pagubitoare-domnului-andrei-plesu-1_56b47d765ab- 6550cb879d576/index.html.
Leigh Phillips, “EU Rejects Eastern States’ Call to Outlaw Denial of Crimes by Communist Regimes,” The Guardian, December 21, 2010, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/dec/21/european-commission-communist-crimes-nazism.
Jaak Pedak, Estonian American National Council Inc., “Black Ribbon Day (Aug. 23) resolution passes in U.S. Congress,” May 23, 2014, http://www.estosite.org/news/2014/5/23/black-ribbon-day-aug-23-resolution-passes-in-us-congress.html.
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